Color Effects

.. ice. Low screeners reported more disphoria then high screeners in the rooms with a red color scheme. Low screeners also reported more disphoria in the white walled room. This was explained by that low screeners can not ignore the starkness of the white pigment while high screeners can.

The goals of this study are to find out what testing conditions are best for low screeners and high screeners. The hypothesis for this study is that low screeners will have higher test scores in the blue room then the high screeners. In the white control room and the red room the high screeners will have higher test scores because they need more stimulation in their environment for optimal performance. Low screeners need less stimulation to reach their optimal performance levels. I believe that all participants will have less confusion and depression in the blue room.

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This research will involve three different college classes in three different color scheme rooms, white, red, and blue. I will have the students take a test that shows whether they are a high screener or a low screener. Equal amounts of low and high screeners will be put in each room and then be lectured to by a professor about a subject not previously covered in the class. I will then have the students fill out a test that shows what they are feeling in the classroom and then they will take a test on the subject lectured on. I believe that a wide range in emotional state and test scores will be found in each room.

In the blue room students will feel calm but the low screeners will test better than the high screeners. In the red room I believe that all students will feel more agitated but high screeners will test better in this room. In the white room I believe that the starkness of the color will affect the low screeners but high screeners will test higher, but not as high as in the red room. I believe that POMS questionnaire results will be higher after the test then before. Method Participants Participants will be freshman college students in a introductory psychology class. There will be approximately 90 students; 30 students in each color scheme.

Materials Three different classroom settings will be used for this experiment each with a different color scheme. The white control room will be a normal white classroom that most college campuses use. The red room will have everything identical to the white room but the color of the walls will be red. Except for the color of the walls the blue room will also be identical to the red and white rooms. I will use average household paint mixed to a light true blue and a deep red. When students first enter the classroom they will take the Mehrabian-s Stimulus Screening Questionnaire (Kwalleck et al., 1997). This is a 40-item, 9-point scale instrument which measures differences in screening and habituation of stimuli that is perceived in the environment. Responses for each question range from +4 (very strong agreement) to -4 (very strong disagreement) with a score of 0 being neutral between the two. Scores of -25 and above define a high screener while scores -24 and below denote low screeners. After the lecture the Profile Mood of status (POMS) will be used to evaluate the participants emotional status in the room.

This is a paper-and-pencil test that reveals six different mood factors: Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Vigor-Activity, Fatigue-Inertia, and Confusion-Bewilderment (Kwalleck et al., 1997). Participants rate their feelings on a five point scale of 0-4 which stands for ?not at all¦ to ?extremely¦. I will also use a 25 question multiple choice test on the topic covered in the lecture. Design and Procedure Subjects will be told that they are participating in this experiment for class credit and will fill out consent forms before the experiment begins. Two days before the real experiment students will take the Mehrabian`s stimulus test that will show whether they are a low screener or a high screener. Participants will then sign a form attached to the consent form that says that to their knowledge they are not color blind. These test will be taken and scored and each room will be given approximately the same amount of high and low screeners on the testing day.

Students will entered the color room they are assigned to and listen to a 30 minute lecture from a topic in their class. After the lecture students in each classroom will be asked to fill out the POMS questionnaire that will rate their emotional status in the classroom and how the color around them is affecting their emotion. After all questionnaires are turned in the professor will pass out a 25 question multiple choice exam that is based on the earlier discussed topic. Students will be allowed thirty minutes to take the test and then once again will take the POMS questionnaire. After the last questionnaire is turned in the subjects in each classroom will be given a debriefing form with information about the study.

Results I would expect to see in the results of this study that the test scores will be highest for the low screeners in the blue room and the high screeners will have their highest test scores in the red room. In the white room test results will be higher for the high screeners but will not be as high as in the red room. I believe that the POMS results will show that participants in the red room will feel the most agitated and confused. The white room will have some confusion but mostly for low screeners. The blue room data will show that all participants are the most comfortable emotionally in this room even though high screeners will not test well in that environment.

Discussion With these results I believe that test taking can be taken to a whole different level in schools. Instead of taking random sections of courses students would be able to take a section that is in the color that they perceive to be more stimulating. By being stimulated to the perfect degree students would be able to get more out of lectures and be able to concentrate more on their test than what is around them. This type of research will help low screeners more than high screeners because they have a hard time sorting through all the stimuli they are presented with. Traditional classroom are usually a white or cream color and this data will show that this type of environment will hurt the learning capabilities of low screeners.

Kwalleck et al. (1997) have shown that workers that are high screeners do work better in an environment where they perceive the extraneous stimuli to be high. On the other hand they found that low screeners do better when extraneous stimuli is low. Other literature points to the fact that color affects different persons different ways, but that it does have effect on our daily duties. In the future I believe that research should be done on children to see if the same phenomena is present in them. The gender factor should also be looked out to see if men or women range differently in high and low screeners. Bibliography Gerard, R.

M. (1958). Differential effects if colored lights on psychophysicological functions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 43, 107-112. Kwalleck, N., Lewis, C.

M., & Robbins A. S. (1988). Effects of office interior color on worker`s mood and productivity. Percept, Motor Skills, 66, 123-128. Kwalleck, N., Woodson, H., Lewis, C.

M., & Sales, C. (1997). Impact of three interior color schemes on worker mood and performance relative to individual environmental sensitivity. COLOR Research and Application, 22, 121-132. Levy, B.

I. (1984). Research into the psychological meaning of color. American Journal of Art Therapy, 23, 58-61. Murray, D.

C, & Deabler, H. L. (1957). Color and mood tones. Journal of Applied Psychology, 41,279-283. Stone, N.

J., & English, A. J. (1998). Task type, poster, and workspace color on mood, satisfaction, and performance. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 175-185.