Marijuana Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded flowers and leaves of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. Marijuana is often called by street names such as pot, herb, weed, boom, Mary Jane, gangster, reefer, or chronic. There are more than 200 slang terms for marijuana. HISTORY: Cannabis was acknowledged as early as 2,700 BC in Chinese manuscripts. Marijuana has been used as a medicine throughout the world since the beginning of written history. During this time, companies such as Lilly, Parke Daivis, Tildens, Squibb, and other major drug manufacturers, have made everything from sleeping elixirs, to stomach medicine from marijuana. These drugs were even knowingly prescribed for children. Since 1839 there have been numerous reports in favor of utilizing medical marijuana.
In 1839 Dr. W.B. OShaugnessy, a respected member of the Royal Academy of Science, was one of the first in the medical profession to present the true facts concerning marijuana and medicine. Dr. OShaugnessys report states clearly, that experience indicates the use of marijuana to be a beneficial analgesic, and to have anticonvulsant, and muscle-relaxant properties. He found it to be effective in treating rheumatism (inflammation or pain in muscles or joints), epilepsy, and spasmodic conditions. In 1860, Dr.
R.R. MMeens, indicated to the Ohio State Medical Society, the usefulness of marijuana in treating tetanus, neuralgia (pain in the nerves), uterine hemorrhage, child labor, convulsions, asthma, bronchitis, and even postpartum psychosis. It was also noted for its affect as an appetite stimulant. This is desperately needed in modern medicine especially by cancer and aids patients to prevent them from literally wasting away. Many of these patients have indicated that no other remedy helps to stimulate the appetite as effectively as smoking a small quantity of marijuana.
It was also noted that smoking the natural plant was significantly more effective than the chemically created, orally consumed, synthetic marijuana. In 1891 Dr. J.B. Mattison indicated the use of marijuana for treatment of migraines, gastric ulcers, deliriuma (mental disturbance), and tremors due to alcoholism. He also found it to be instrumental in actually replacing the craving for, and thus curing alcoholism.
He found the same effect carried over in treating other serious addictions such as morphine or heroin addiction. In 1890 Dr. J.R. Reynolds found marijuana to be an excellent aid in combating a number of problems associated with aging. Dr. Reynolds noted marijuanas usefulness in overcoming senile insomnia as well as its psychological benefits in helping older people cope with some of the feelings and emotions associated with growing older.
INCREASE & DECREASE OF USAGE SINCE DRUGS DISCOVERY: The use of marijuana reached a high point in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and has been declining ever since. In a 1978 survey, 37 percent of high school seniors said they had smoked marijuana in the last 30 days, and 11 percent said they used it daily. By 1986 the number who said they had smoked it in the last 30 days had fallen to 23 percent – lower than in 1975 – and the proportion of daily users had dropped steadily to 4 percent. The trend among people aged 18 to 25 is similar. On the other hand, more people over 25 may be using marijuana occasionally, and young people are still experimenting with it.
In 1969, 20 percent of high school seniors had used marijuana at least once, in 1979, 60 percent had; and in 1985, 54 percent. The attitudes expressed in surveys show why habitual marijuana use is in decline. In 1978, 65 percent of high school students said they disapproved of it; in 1985, 85 percent disapproved. A recent government survey shows: Over 70 million Americans over the age of 12 have tried marijuana at least once. About 10 million had used the drug in the month before the survey. More than 5 million Americans smoke marijuana at least once a week.
Among teens aged 12 to 17, the average age of first trying marijuana was 13.5 years old. A yearly survey of students in grades 8 through 12 shows that by 10th grade, nearly 16 percent are “current” users (that is, used within the past month). Among 12th-graders, nearly 40 percent have tried marijuana/hash at least once, and 19 percent were current users. Other researchers have found that use of marijuana and other drugs usually peaks in the late teens and early twenties, then goes down in later years. GENERIC VS. BRAND NAME: There are stronger forms of marijuana available today than there were in the 1960s.
The strength of the drug is measured by the amount of average THC in test samples confiscated by law enforcement agencies. Sinsemilla (sin-seh-me-yah; it’s a Spanish word), hashish (“hash” for short), and hash oil are stronger forms of marijuana. Most ordinary marijuana has an average of 3 percent THC. Sinsemilla (made from just the buds and flowering tops of female plants) has an average of 7.5 percent THC, with a range as high as 24 percent. Hashish (the sticky resin from the female plant flowers) has an average of 3.6 percent, with a range as high as 28 percent. Hash oil, a tar-like liquid distilled from hashish, has an average of 16 percent, with a range as high as 43 percent. ACTION: THC disrupts the nerve cells in the part of the brain where memories are formed.
This makes it hard for the user to recall recent events (such as what happened a few minutes ago), and so it is hard to learn while high. A working short-term memory is required for learning and performing tasks that call for more than one or two steps. Some studies show that when people have smoked large amounts of marijuana for many years, the drug takes its toll on mental functions. Among a group of long-time heavy marijuana users in Costa Rica, researchers found that the people had great trouble when asked to recall a short list of words (a standard test of memory). People in that study group also found it very hard to focus their attention on the tests given to them. It may be that marijuana kills some brain cells.
In laboratory research, some scientists found that high doses of THC given to young rats caused a loss of brain cells such as that seen with aging. INDICATORS: One beneficial effect of THC is the lowering of intracular pressure, which can be helpful in the control of glaucoma. However, because it causes tachycardia, relatively rapid heart action such as physiological (as after exercise), and increased work for the heart, it can not be used in most elderly persons, in which age group glaucoma is most common. THC can also be used for the control of severe nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. CONTRAINDICATORS: Doctors advise pregnant women not to use any drugs because they might harm the growing fetus. Some scientific studies have found that babies born to marijuana users were shorter, weighed less, and had smaller head sizes than those born to mothers who did not use the drug. Smaller babies are more likely to develop health problems. Other scientists have found effects of marijuana that resemble the features of fetal alcohol syndrome.
There are also research findings that show nervous system problems in children of mothers who smoked marijuana. Researchers are not certain whether a newborn baby’s health problems, if they are caused by marijuana, will continue as the child grows. DOSAGE FOR BODY WEIGHT: Under U.S. law since 1970, marijuana is a Schedule I controlled substance. This means that the drug, at least in its smoked form, has no commonly accepted medical use in this country.
In considering possible medical uses of marijuana, it is important to distinguish between whole marijuana and pure THC or other specific chemicals derived from cannabis. Whole marijuana contains hundreds of chemicals, some of which are clearly harmful to health. THC, manufactured into a pill that is taken by mouth, not smoked, can be used for treating …