Organism Adaptations

.. rain and spinal chord’s inter neurons -> motor neurons -> arm muscles Movement and Locomotion – for protists and animals, responses usually involves some form of movement – all animals are capable of some sort of movement – an animal’s movement is controlled by its nervous system locomotion: movement from one location to another – Most animals have some form of locomotion. Locomotion can be difficult to study because some animals move very quickly Nervous and Locomotory Systems of the Earthworm – earthworms respond to light, touch, moisture, and chemicals – sense receptors are located under the skin – central nervous systems of the earthworm is a double spinal chord – nerve chord is connected to two larger ganglia in the worm’s head – this is the brain – there are smaller ganglia for each segment of the worm’s body 5-18-1993 Nervous and Locomotory systems of the Earthworm – continued – Part II – the ganglia enables the earthworm to move each segment independently – earthworm also has 2 sets of muscles -one perpendicular to the other -1) longitudinal muscles: when contracted, the worm becomes shorter and fatter -2) circular muscles: when contracted, the worm becomes thinner and longer – when the worm is moving forward, you can see a wave of motion passing along the body of the worm 5-19-1993 Locomotion in other Organisms – different types of locomotion: running, swimming, gliding, jumping, hopping, crawling or pseudopodia (false feet) amoeba – animals have different body parts that aid in locomotion -e.g. spider monkey – tail, kangaroo – hind legs, bat – wings Sensory Systems of Other Organisms Protists: have chemoreceptors in cell membrane – these receptors can also detect the presence of other organisms Euglena: have a pigment spot: sensitive to light – Euglena can’t see, but it will move towards the light – when there is enough light, the Euglena will perform photosynthesis – different organisms possess sense organs that are more sensitive than those of humans e.g. dogs and bats can detect sounds of higher frequencies birds of prey have a more sensitive sense of vision insects have a more sensitive sense of smell Photosynthesis sunlight + H2O + CO2 -> glucose + O2 energy + H2O + CO2 .